1. add up 合计
2. upset vt&vi 弄翻，使…不安,使心烦,扰乱
4. calm (使)平静、(使)镇定
calm down 平静/镇定下来
5. have got to 不得不、必须
6. concern (使)担忧、涉及、关系到
be concerned about…关心，挂念
7. go through 经历、经受
8. set down 记下、放下、登记
9. a series of 一系列
10. on purpose 故意
11. in order to 为了……
12. at dusk 在黄昏时刻
13. face to face 面对面地
14. no longer/not…any longer 不再……
15. settle 安家、定居、停留
16. suffer 遭受、忍受、经历
17. suffer from 遭受、患病
18. recover 痊愈、恢复、重新获得
19. get/be tired of 对……厌烦
20. pack 捆扎，包装/包裹
21. pack (sth) up 将（东西）装箱打包
22. get along with 与……相处
23. fall in love 爱上
24. disagree 不同意
25. join in 参加
1. It was the first time in a year and a half that I had seen the night face to face. （从句时态用完成时）
2. I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature.（强调句）
3. I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven one evening in order to have a good look at the moon for once by myself.
4. Your friend, who doesn’t work hard, asks you to help him cheat in the end-of-term exam.（非限制性定语从句）
5. If you have some trouble (in) getting along with your friends, you can write to the editor and ask for advice.
6. Add up your score and see how many points you can get.
7. What he did has added to our difficulties.
8. His income adds up to $1000 a month.
9. It's no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced.
10. Why is she so concerned about his attitude to her work?
11. The police asked him to set down what he had seen in a report.
12. As I was about to go out and search for him, he happened to come in.
13. Mr. Jones lives alone and often feels lonely.
14. We tried to calm him down, but he kept crying.
15) Does he dare (to) go out at night in such stormy weather?
16. He would go through fire and water for his country.
17. That country suffered a heavy loss in the flood.
例：Mr. Black said, “ I’m busy.”
Mr. Black said that he was busy.
例：1. He said, “ I like it very much.” → He said that he liked it very much.
2. He said to me, “I'v left my book in your room.”
→ He told me that he had left his book in my room.
例：“I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne.
→Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary.
The boy said, “I’m using a knife.”
→ The boy said that he was using a knife.
He said, “Light travels much faster than sound.”
He said that light travels much faster than sound.
（1）一般疑问句：如果直接引语是一般疑问句，变为间接引语时，谓语动词是say或said时，要改为 ask 或asked,原问句变为由if/whether 引导的宾语从句。
例:“Do you think a diary can become your friend?” the writer says.
→ The writer asks us if we think a diary can become our friend.
例：“What do you want?” he asked me.
→ He asked me what I wanted
1. because of 因为、由于
2. come up 走近、上来、提出
3. actually 实际上、事实上
4. base 以…为基础，根基
5. at present 目前
6. make use of 利用
7. such as 例如
8. command 命令、指令、掌握
9. request 请求、要求
10. play a part/role in 扮演一个角色
11. recognize 辨认出、承认、公认
12. straight 直接、挺直、笔直的
13. be different from 与…不同
be the same as 和…一样
14. one another 相互，彼此（=each other）
15. at the end of 在…结束时
16. because of 因为（后接名词或名词性短语）
17. be based on 根据，依据
18. at present 目前；当今
19. especially 特别，尤其
20. make use of 利用…
make the best of 充分利用…
21. a large number of 大量的，很多（作主语时，谓语动词用复数）
the number of …的数量（作主语时，谓语动词用单数）
22. in fact = actually= as a matter of fact 事实上
23. make lists of… 列清单
24. included 包括（前面接包括的对象）
25. command sb. to do sth. 命令某人去做某事
command + that 从句（从句用should+V原）
26. request sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事
request + that 从句(从句用should+V原)
1. World Englishes come from those countries where English plays an important role as a first or second language, either because of foreign rule or because of its special role as an international language.（定语从句）
2. All languages change when cultures communicate with one another.
3. Actually, the English spoken between about AD 450 and 1150 was based more on German than present day English.
4. Would you please come up to my flat for a visit?
5. Believe it or not, he cheated in the exams.
6. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English.
7. Today the number of people learning English in China is larger than even before.
8. It is the duty of a government to provide education for the children of its country. （it作形式主语）
9. Reading is one of the best ways of improving your vocabulary and usage.
10. Giving commands is less polite than making a request.
11. We asked her for directions and she told us to go round the corner on the left and keep going straight for two blocks.
12. He knows several languages, such as English, French and German.
例：The hostess said to us, “Please sit down.”
→ The hostess asked us to sit down.
He said, “Don’t make so much noise, boys.”
→ He told the boys not to make so much noise.
2. prefer A to B 比起B，更喜欢A
prefer doing to doing 比起做…，宁愿做…
prefer to do rather than do 与其做…, 不如…
3. flow through 流过，流经
4. ever since 自从
5. persuade sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事
6. be fond of 喜欢
7. insist on doing 坚持做某事
insist + that 从句（用should+ V原）
8. care about 关心
9. change one’s mind 改变想法
10. altitude 高度
11. make up one’s mind to do下定决心做某事
= decide to do = make a decision to do
12. give in 让步，屈服
give up 放弃